A scientific paper published Wednesday by researchers at Harvard University says 11 other proposed hydroelectric sites in Canada would have even higher levels of methylmercury than Muskrat Falls in Labrador.
The paper, published in the journal Environmental Science Technology, is based on research carried out between 2012 and 2015 on samples of organic material taken from the Lake Melville area, and country food eaten in the region.
The research involved hundreds of Inuit living downstream of the hydro project — in Happy Valley-Goose Bay, North West River and Rigolet — who provided hair samples for testing and answered questions about their daily diet.
- Mercury levels from Muskrat Falls pose threat, says environmental panelist
- Nalcor downplays study findings into methylmercury fears at Muskrat Falls
The Harvard team concluded that on average, exposure to methylmercury will double after flooding for the Muskrat Falls project, and that people who eat locally-caught wildlife nearly every day, especially river fish, are at highest risk.
It said projected increases are greatest in Rigolet, where people eat the most trout, seal, birds and other wildlife, with over half the women of childbearing age and young children projected to exceed levels approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
Not just Labrador
The team created a framework which it also applied to 21 other proposed hydroelectric sites in Canada, all located within 100 kilometres of Indigenous communities.
It said more than half would have methylmercury levels even higher than at Muskrat Falls, which has a relatively small reservoir of 41 square kilometres. The highest forecasted concentration was at Romaine 4 in Quebec, with a 144-square kilometre flooded area.
“While more research needs to be done on these other sites, our research shows that some hydroelectric projects are more green than others,” Elsie Sunderland, professor of environmental science and engineering, and the study’s senior author said in a news release.
“This research opens the door to screening these projects and identifying the ones where mitigation efforts, like removing the top layer of soil before an area is flooded, would be most effective.”
The Harvard paper concluded that: “Without such mitigation strategies, our analysis shows hydroelectric development will have a disproportionate impact on Indigenous communities, affecting long-term neurocognitive function in children and with potential population level impacts on endocrine and cardiovascular health.”
The paper builds on earlier research done by the Harvard lab, research that has been used to fuel protests against the Labrador project.
- Muskrat Falls workers bused out after protesters occupy site in Central Labrador
- Water levels begin to rise at Muskrat Falls
However, it is the first time the conclusions have been applied to other hydro projects, looking at potential risk across Canada.
Sunderland said in the past health risks from methylmercury exposure were “understood in retrospect, after the damage is done.”
The Nunatsiavut Government, which represents Inuit in Labrador, worked with the Harvard team.
Its leaders, along with other Indigenous groups, have allowed Nalcor Energy to begin raising water levels at Muskrat Falls, but only to what would be normal during spring runoff.
The Newfoundland and Labrador government has said water levels will be brought back down in the spring of 2017.
Proposed hydro projects in the Harvard study with projected methylmercury levels above Muskrat Falls:
- False Canyon (Liard, YT)
- Middle Canyon (Liard, YT)
- Detour Canyon (Pelly, YT)
- Granite Canyon (Pelly, YT)
- Slate Rapids (Pelly, YT)
- Fraser Falls (Stewart, YT)
- Romaine 1-4 (La Romaine, QC)
- Gull Island (NL)
Other proposed projects with lower projected methylmercury levels:
- Keeyask (Nelson, MB)
- Conawapa (Nelson, MB)
- New Post Creek (Abitibi, ON)
- Tazi Twe (Font du Lac, SK)
- Amisk (Peace, AB)
- Site C (Peace, BC)
- La Martre (La Martre, NT)
- Lustelk’e (Snowdrift, NT)
- Hoole Canyon (Pelly, YT)
- Two Mile Canyon (Stewart, YT)